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 英语六级阅读Passage One答案及解析

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Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage

Professor Stephen Hawking has warned that the creation of powerful artificial intelligence (AI) will be “either the best, or the worst thing, ever to happen to humanity”, and praised the creation of an academic institute dedicated to researching the future of intelligence as “crucial to the future of our civilization and our species.”

Hawking was speaking at the opening of the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence (LCFI) at Cambridge University, a multi-disciplinary institute that will attempt to tackle some of the open-ended questions raised by the rapid pace of development in AI research. “We spend a great deal of time studying history,” Hawking said, “which, let’s face it, is mostly the history of stupidity. So it’s a welcome change that people are studying instead the future of intelligence.”

While the world-renowned physicist has often been cautious about AI, raising concerns that humanity could be the architect of its own destruction if it creates a super-intelligence with a will of its own, he was also quick to highlight the positives that AI research can bring. “The potential benefits of creating intelligence are huge,” he said. “We cannot predict what we might achieve when our own minds are amplified by AI. Perhaps with the tools of this new technological revolution, we will be able to undo some of the damage done to the natural world by the last one – industrialization. And surely we will aim to finally eradicate disease and poverty. And every aspect of our lives will be transformed. In short, success in creating AI could be the biggest event in the history of our civilization.”

Huw Price, the centre’s academic director and the Bertrand Russell professor of philosophy at Cambridge University, where Hawking is also an academic, said that the centre came about partially as a result of the university’s Centre for Existential Risk. That institute examined a wider range of potential problems or humanity, while the LCFI has a narrow focus.

AI pioneer Margaret Boden, professor of cognitive science at the University of Sussex, praised the progress of such discussions. As recently as 2009, she said, the topic wasn’t taken seriously, even among AI researchers. “AI is hugely exciting,” she said, “but it has limitations, which present grace dangers given uncritical use.”

The academic community is not alone in warning about the potential dangers of AI as well as the potential benefits. A number of pioneers from the technology industry, most famously the entrepreneur Elon Musk, have also expressed their concerns about the damage that a super-intelligent AI could do to humanity.

46. What did Stephen Hawking think of artificial intelligence?

A) It would be vital to the progress of human civilization.

B) It might be a blessing or a disaster in the making.

C) It might present challenges as well as opportunities.

D) It would be a significant expansion of human intelligence.

46. B. It might be a blessing or a disaster in the making.

【定位】根据题干Stephen Hawking think of artificial intelligence定位到第一段第一句

【解析】“either the best, or the worst thing…”,要么是最好的,要么是最坏的,与选项B对应。选项A不是本文主旨所在。选项C偷换逻辑,文中是说人工智能可能有益也可能有害,不是在说机遇与挑战并存。选项D在原文并未直接提及,也与主旨无关。

47. What did Hawking say about the creation of the LCFI?

A) It would accelerate the process of AI research.

B) It would mark a step forward in the AI industry.

C) It was extremely important to the destiny of humankind.

D) It was an achievement of multi-disciplinary collaboration.

47. C. It was extremely important to the destiny of humankind.

【定位】根据关键词the creation of the LCFI定位到第一段第二句

【解析】“crucial to the future of our civilization and our species” 对我们文明和我们物种的未来至关重要,与选项C对应。本题较为简单,选项A、选项B与选项D均没有在原文中提及,而且文章是在说LEFI的重要性。

48. What did Hawking say was a welcome change in AI research?

A) The shift of research focus from the past to the future.

B) The shift of research from theory to implementation.

C) The greater emphasis on the negative impact of AI.

D) The increasing awareness of mankind’s past stupidity.

48. A. The shift of research focus from the past to the future.

【定位】根据关键词a welcome change定位到第二段末尾句

【解析】it’s a welcome change that people are studying instead the future of intelligence. 人们研究的是智慧的未来,这是一个令人欢迎的变化。根据前文的We spend a great deal of time studying history…is mostly the history of stupidity可知,我们花了很多时间研究愚蠢的历史,可以选出选项A。选项B与选项C在原文没有提及。选项D偏离了重点,题干是在问令人欢迎的变化是什么,对应原文“从研究历史到研究未来的转换”。

49. What concerns did Hawking raise about AI?

A) It may exceed human intelligence sooner or later.

B) It may ultimately over-amplify the human mind.

C) Super-intelligence may cause its own destruction.

D) Super—intelligence may eventually ruin mankind.

49. D. Super—intelligence may eventually ruin mankind.

【定位】根据题干concerns和Hawking raise about AI定位到原文第三段第一句

【解析】…raising concerns that humanity could be the architect of its own destruction if it creates a super-intelligence…:如果人类有自己的意愿创造出一种超级智能,那么人类可能是自身毁灭的建筑师。对应选项D。选项A与选项B没有在原文提及。选项D与选项C的差异在于,选项D是说人工智能毁灭人类,选项C是说人工智能毁灭人工智能自身。这是题目陷阱——原文中的its own destruction,its指代前文的humanity人类。

50. What do we learn about some entrepreneurs from the technology industry?

A) They are much influenced by the academic community.

B) They are most likely to benefit from AI development.

C) They share the same concerns about AI as academic.

D) They believe they can keep AI under human control.

50. C. They share the same concerns about AI as academic.

【定位】根据关键词some entrepreneurs定位到原文最后一段第二句

【解析】most famously the entrepreneur Elon Musk, have also expressed their concerns about the damage that a super-intelligent AI could do to humanity. 最著名的企业家埃隆·马斯克,也表达了他们对超级智能人工智能可能对人类造成的损害的担忧。这种担忧正是前文的学术界表达的。所以选项C为正确答案。选项A、选项B与选项D均没有在原文中提及。

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